HAProxy Coraza SPOA


Coraza SPOA runs the Coraza Web Application Firewall (WAF) as a backing service for HAProxy. It already embeds the Coraza Engine and processes requests for HAProxy.

There are multiple components involved in the request processing, so here are some terms you should know:

HAProxy includes a Stream Processing Offload Engine (SPOE) to offload request processing to a Stream Processing Offload Agent (SPOA). Data is exchanged between the HAProxy filter and the agent via a binary protocol over TCP called the Stream Processing Offload Procotol (SPOP).

HAProxy forwards incoming HTTP Requests and the Responses to the agent (SPOA) for WAF processing, a message is returned by the agent with the result of the scan.

The following diagram shows a HTTP Request & Response flow:


Building the Agent

If you wish to complile Coraza SPOA from source, you’ll first need Go installed on your machine. Go version 1.16+ is required. Additionally you will need to install: pkg-config make gcc.

Clone the coraza-spoa repository:

git clone https://github.com/corazawaf/coraza-spoa.git

To compile a development version of coraza-spoa, run make. This will download all dependencies and compile a coraza-spoa binary.

Configuration Overview

Since the configuration is split-up in a couple of files, here is a quick rundown:

  • /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg - HAProxy Main Configuration
  • /etc/haproxy/coraza.cfg - HAProxy SPOE Configuration
  • /etc/coraza-spoa/config.yml - Coraza SPOA Main Configuration
  • /etc/coraza-spoa/coraza.conf - Coraza Engine Configuration

To perform the configuration:

Start by adding a filter statement to an HAProxy frontend, which turns on stream processing. The filter links to a separate SPOE configuration file, in which you configure how HAProxy SPOE communicates with the Coraza SPOA agent.

Coraza SPOA main configuration file is in /etc/coraza-spoa/config.yml.

The following diagram shows how all of the configuration files are linked and which component they configure.


HAProxy Configuration

Below is a example haproxy.cfg configuration:

    log stdout format raw local0

    log global
    option httplog

frontend test
    mode http
    bind *:80
    unique-id-format %[uuid()]
    unique-id-header X-Unique-ID
    log-format "%ci:%cp\ [%t]\ %ft\ %b/%s\ %Th/%Ti/%TR/%Tq/%Tw/%Tc/%Tr/%Tt\ %ST\ %B\ %CC\ %CS\ %tsc\ %ac/%fc/%bc/%sc/%rc\ %sq/%bq\ %hr\ %hs\ %{+Q}r\ %ID\ spoa-error:\ %[var(txn.coraza.error)]\ waf-hit:\ %[var(txn.coraza.fail)]"

    filter spoe engine coraza config coraza.cfg

    # Deny for Coraza WAF hits
    http-request deny if { var(txn.coraza.fail) -m int eq 1 }
    http-response deny if { var(txn.coraza.fail) -m int eq 1 }

    # Deny in case of an error, when processing with the Coraza SPOA
    http-request deny deny_status 504 if { var(txn.coraza.error) -m int gt 0 }
    http-response deny deny_status 504 if { var(txn.coraza.error) -m int gt 0 }
    use_backend test_backend

backend test_backend
    mode http
    http-request return status 200 content-type "text/plain" string "Welcome!\n"

backend coraza-spoa
    mode tcp
    server s1

The HAProxy SPOE gets activated by the filter statement in frontent test.

Configuration of the SPOE behavior is then defined in coraza.cfg. This includes messages to exchange, which backend HAPRoxy should use internally to exchange messages with the SPOA, and some other details.

After a HTTP Request or Response has been scanned by the Coraza Engine, it will inform HAProxy by setting the txn.coraza.fail variable. For scored requests the variable is set to 1 and the request should get blocked, clean requests should pass if txn.coraza.fail is set to a value of 0.

Blocking a HTTP Request or Response is handled in the HAProxy frontend test configuration via the http-request deny and http-response deny statements.

Additionally in case the Coraza SPOA failed processing the request, it will get blocked with a deny_status 504. By default HAProxy would just disable the filter if Coraza takes too long to process the request.

HAProxy SPOE Configuration

The HAProxy SPOE is configured in the /etc/haproxy/coraza.cfg:

# https://github.com/haproxy/haproxy/blob/master/doc/SPOE.txt
spoe-agent coraza-agent
    messages coraza-req coraza-res
    option var-prefix coraza
    option set-on-error error
    timeout hello      100ms
    timeout idle       2m
    timeout processing 500ms
    use-backend coraza-spoa
    log global

spoe-message coraza-req
    args id=unique-id src-ip=src method=method path=path query=query version=req.ver headers=req.hdrs body=req.body
    event on-frontend-http-request

spoe-message coraza-res
    args id=unique-id version=res.ver status=status headers=res.hdrs body=res.body
    event on-http-response

It defines processing timeouts and the messages to exchange via the SPOP protocol.

Thats it for the HAProxy side, lets configure the coraza-spoa service, which should listen on to exchange the spoe-message with HAProxy.

Coraza Configuration

Coraza SPOA is configured via the /etc/coraza-spoa/config.yml:

  # The log level configuration, one of: debug/info/warn/error/panic/fatal
  level: info
  # The log file dir of the coraza-spoa
  dir: /var/log/coraza-spoa

  # The SPOA server bind address
  bind: ""

  # Get the coraza.conf from https://github.com/corazawaf/coraza
  # Download the OWASP CRS from https://github.com/coreruleset/coreruleset/releases
  # and copy crs-setup.conf, the rules & plugins directories to /etc/coraza-spoa
    - /etc/coraza-spoa/coraza.conf
    - /etc/coraza-spoa/crs-setup.conf
    - /etc/coraza-spoa/rules/*.conf

  # The transaction cache lifetime(ms)
  transaction_ttl: 60000
  # The transaction cache limit
  transaction_active_limit: 100000

Since Coraza SPOA is only a daemon which exchanges SPOP protocol messages with HAProxy, the configuration is quite simple.

Coraza SPOA also embeds the Coraza Engine and the OWASP Coreruleset, which are configured by the files listed in the include section:

Once the coraza-spoa daemon is running you can begin with the Coraza Engine and Coreruleset configuration.


If you need help & support you could check the #coraza channel in the OWASP Slack: https://owasp.org/slack/invite

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